Top Level Domains (TLD)

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Root servers are the server systems located across the world that hold the IP address for all domain names registered with a Top Level Domain, TLD.

As of 12/25/2007, there are 13 root servers lettered A-M.
Each root server is operated by an organization and has it's own IP address. 

VeriSign Inc.
198.41.0.4
BInformation Sciences Institute
IPv4:192.228.79.201
IPv6:2001:478:65::53
C
Cogent Communications
192.33.4.12
D
University of Maryland
128.8.10.90
E
NASA Ames Research Center
192.203.230.10
F
Internet Systems Consortium IncIPv4:192.5.5.241
IPv6:2001:500::1035  
G
U.S. DOD Network Information Center
192.112.36.4
H
U.S. Army Research Lab
IPv4:128.63.2.53
IPv6:2001:500:1::803f:235
I
Autonomica/NORDUnet
192.36.148.17
J
VeriSign Inc
192.58.128.30
K
Reseaux IP Europeens
Network  Coordination Centre
IPv4:193.0.14.129
IPv6:2001:7fd::1  
L
Internet Corporation for Assigned
Names and Numbers (ICANN)
199.7.83.42
M
WIDE Project
IPv4:202.12.27.33
IPv6:2001:dc3::35
Information from IANA.
Team Cymru keeps a monitoring system for the world's root servers here